Raw Materials

The classic marble/cement tile was born, indicatively, towards the end of the nineteenth century in Italy.

Obtained with marble grit and cement , it is inspired by the splendid “Venetian Terrazzo” (hence the name of Terrazzo): typical flooring of the Venetian villas, whose peculiar characteristics were the realization on site and use of marble and various stones granules, tied with pebble lime or cement mixed with fine grit or cocciopesto (opus signinum).
This characteristic pavement has ancient origins that have their roots in ancient Greece, passing through the villas of the Roman Empire.

Modern Terrazzo tiles (Marble/Cement) combine robustness and quality with a highly automated production process capable of obtaining considerable production capacity.
In addition, the value and the physical-chemical characteristics of the tile can be increased with grinding/polishing processes, anti-stain treatments, chamfering and sandblasting, as well as the possibility of using special chemical additives or alternative raw materials to obtain innovative finishes.

The Terrazzo tile can be produced both for indoor flooring (flat polished tile) and for outdoor flooring (with design), even with high thickness suitable for the transit of heavy vehicles.
Can be also produced splendid tiles with decoration (encaustic or mosaic tile) using a semi-automated process, which combines technology with craftsmanship.

This type of tile is made up of two different overlapping layers:

  • First Layer: the top layer (upper face of the finished tile), richer and more valuable, obtained by mixing water with Portland cement (generally white, but in some productions also gray), marble powder and marble grit, of various grain sizes. This layer is also the richest in water.

  • Second Layer (also named as substrate): the lower (bottom face of the finished tile), semi-dry layer, which has the main task of absorbing the water of the First Layer, becoming its support layer, increasing the strength of the tiles; it is obtained by mixing, together with a small quantity of water, gray Portland cement, crashed stone sand and siliceous sand.

Production Process

Batching Process

The first step of production process consists in the precise dosage of the inert materials; this phase is carried out by the Batching Plants, composed of a variable number of hoppers inside which the raw materials are loaded. During the production cycle the aggregates are unloaded, consecutively, onto the conveyor/weigher belt, on which they are weighed thanks to the help of electronic load cells and digital weighing systems.
Then the raw materials are conveyed to the Planetary Mixing Device mod. KM270 that prepare first and second layer mixing using automatic water batching system with an electronic litre-counter.

Pressing and Demoulding

The mixing of the First Layer is conveyed to the Automatic Batcher Distributor Mod. KM200 of the Automatic Press Mod. OM600-300T, then automatic dosing is carried out inside the molds where the mortar is compacted by electric vibrators; the mixing of the second layer is conveyed to the Automatic Charger Mod. DC200, which performs the dosage and shaving in the molds of the Press.

The Second Layer is pressed against the first layer inside the mould from the Pressing Group, the pressing force applied is between 110 – 160 Kg/Cm2 : the pressing phase, in addition to compacting the materials, forces the passage of the water from the first layer to the second layer, semi-dry, obtaining a compact tile which, although still fresh, can be manipulated and moved.
Then the tiles, extracted from the moulds by the Demoulding Group and taken from the Automatic Extraction Device, are conveyed and stocked in special metal containers by our Automatic Drawing Conveyor Mod. OM50/F to be finally sent to the storage area for natural curing.
All operations are controlled by an Electric Control Panel with programmable PLC Logic.

Curing and Grinding/Honing Process

After only 2/4 days of natural curing (natural curing takes about 3 days, but this time decreases with increasing temperature and humidity, therefore, if desired, it is possible to spray some water on the tiles to speed up the seasoning process), the tiles are picked up by the Automatic Feeding Conveyor Mod. OM50/S and sent directly to the Linear Polisher Machine Mod. OM800 for the finishing process.

The automatic conveyor deposits the tiles on a feeding track, equipped with a tilting device to rotate the visible face (First Layer) upwards, which sends them to an anti-abrasion conveyor belt that feeds the Polishing Machine.
All our Polishing Machines use carborundum grinding wheels and the polishing is performed with a pneumatic system with automatic compensation to constantly adapt to the thickness of the tile while maintaining a uniform degree of finish.
Each single head has independent electric and pneumatic controls that prevent improper operations and allow to constantly adjust the wear of the grinding wheels.

At the exit of the Polishing Machine, the tiles are collected and stored on wooden pallets, ready for delivery.
This operation can be carried out both manually and through our Automatic Palletizing Conveyor Mod. OM50/P.

For the production of outdoor tiles without polishing, the final phase, after curing, involves automatic unloading through the Automatic Feeding Conveyor Mod. OM50/S and positioning on pallets using the Automatic Palletizing Conveyor Mod. OM50/P.